ITU A|Z VOL: 9, NO:2, 1-21, 2012-2
The role of metaphors in the formation of architectural identity Nezih AYIRAN Cyprus International University, Faculty of Fine Arts, Lefkoşa, TRNC Received: January 2011
Final Acceptance: May 2012
Abstract: As is the case in every other field of art, the purpose of architecture is to reveal a unique situation which has never been experienced before and broaden the feelings, thoughts and imagination of human beings. Considering that the concepts of identity and uniqueness are close enough to be used for the same meaning, the main purpose of architecture can be defined as designing a building which has a certain identity. Metaphors seem to be quite beneficial instruments compared to several other methods and approaches applied by architects in order to achieve this purpose. Design problems are defined as “wicked” problems which are too complex to be solved with completely linear, rational, logical methods and with a certain algorithm and require considering both objective and subjective aspects of the problem at the same time and with creativity. Metaphors, defined as “imaginative rationality” appear to be quite appropriate tools for solving such problems since they unite rationality and imagination. This paper has two interconnected purposes. The primary purpose is to determine the effective role played by metaphors during the design processes of distinguished and referred buildings which have strong identities both in the past and in recent architecture. The secondary purpose is to indicate the capability of a design approach based on metaphors to meet the demand for architecture with identity and overcome the increasing monotonousness in the man-made environment. Keywords: Architectural identity, metaphor, homospatial thinking, identity formation, metamorphosis 1. Metaphors, creativity and architectural identity Aristotle was the first philosopher known in history who pointed out the effective role played by metaphors in creative processes. He briefly defines a metaphor as, “…consists in giving the name that belongs to something else” (Poetics, 1457b). And he explains the importance of metaphors: “…ordinary words convey only what we know already: it is from metaphor that we best get hold of something fresh… It is a great thing by far to be master of metaphor” (Rhetoric, 1410b). One of the aspects of imagination is seeing something in terms of another thing as claimed by Lakoff and
Johnson (2003) who clarify the reason for this importance. If this idea is true, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of imagination and thus, creativity, can be increased through metaphorical thinking. According to Lakoff and Johnson (2003), “The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another” (p. 5), and “…principally a way of conceiving one thing in terms of another” (p. 36). Johnson (1987: 168) asserts that “Metaphorical projection is one fundamental means by which we project structure, make new connections, and remold our experience”. “A metaphor can often create novel features in an object or a situation”,writes Indurkhya (1999: 621). From the perspective of Lakoff (1987), new metaphors create the entire conceptual system that human activities depend on. In a similar vein, Ricoeur (1991) underlines that metaphors increase our perception of reality by shattering our sense of reality, and that reality goes through phases of metamorphosis through metaphors. It is ideal to reach a new design reality never before having existed by the end of the design process. In order to achieve this reality, it is a must that our current sense of reality goes through several phases of metamorphosis. Otherwise, we can never find the opportunity to add new “architectural realities” to the existing environments. The examples which were designed based on the metaphorical approach investigated within the framework of this article verify this idea. Since Aristotle, the ideas about the role of metaphors in creative processes and their definition have not changed much. In this respect, the most remarkable change is that the role of metaphors in creativity is not just limited to art works; their importance is continuously increasing in science and other creative studies. It should be pointed out that metaphors play important roles in theoretical realms of physics which cause paradigmatic shifts. Einstein’s own statements reveal that he conceptualized his own theory in the form of visual images and used them in his thoughts (Holton, 1993). However, according to current operational procedures in science, solutions for characteristically “tame” scientific problems are sought generally by means of analytic, logical and linear methods. On the other hand, design problems are inherently complex; their alternative solutions are unpredictable beforehand, and they are defined as “wicked” (Rittel and Webber, 1973) or “ill-structured” (Simon, 1973). Design can be characterized as an activity which has sometimes the mission of covering contradictory goals, is based on implicit theories, and the notions such as inexpressibility, vagueness, ambiguity, instability, contingence and interrelatedness (Ledewitz, 1985; Wakkary, 2005). As Norton (1999: 194) points out, “There is no single, accepted formulation of the problem; and answers are often more-or-less terms in which planners and managers at best can find reasonable, but shifting balances among competing interest and values… The correct formulation of the problem cannot be known until solution is accepted”. Because of that, the architectural design process is a quite complex and non-linear progression. One aspect of this complexity in design is that it is an activity somehow related to almost all disciplines and fields. Another aspect of its complexity is that the design bears the responsibility of addressing a constantly changing and complex human social experience (Wakkary, 2005) and human behavior which is not easily predictable. The operational system of the human mind during such an activity still keeps its mystery to a large extent, and this increases its complexity. Although there is not much discussion about the complexity of this activity, there are contradictory and polarized ideas concerning its essence and, in connection with that, how to get better results by applying which approach and method. While one pole considers architectural design as a technical problem solving activity that should be
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based on an objective reasoning method, another pole gives priority to the subjectivism assuming that the designer is a creative genius expressing her/him/self. The approach based on metaphors and defined as “experientialist” by Lakoff and Johnson (2003) embraces both imagination and rationality considering there is no contradiction between them, and thus has the potential to create better results. During architectural design processes, not only rational thinking and comprehension of external world, but also imagination and internal aspects of understanding are needed. In this context, Lakoff and Johnson (2003) claim that, “The myth of objectivism reflects the human need to understand the external world in order to be successful in it. The myth of subjectivism is focused on internal aspects of understanding. The experientialist myth suggests that these are not opposing concerns. It offers a perspective from which both concerns can be met at once” (p. 229) and “From the experientialist perspective, metaphor is a matter of imaginative rationality… New metaphors are capable of creating new understanding and, therefore, new realities” (p. 235). Within the framework of the ideas pointed out so far and particularly for their capability in creating new realities, metaphors appear to be very valuable and important tools for an architecture that searches for inexperienced, unique situations and, in this sense, a new reality and makes use of rational thinking and imagination at the same time for this end. Metaphorical thought is not a logical linear mode of thinking. Therefore, it can be seen as an appropriate instrument for understanding the “recursive aspect of complexity” (Bateson, 1988) in design and act accordingly. Metaphors are not just a matter of language; they are also a matter of thought and action. They involve all natural dimensions of our sense experience such as color, shape, texture, sound (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). The origins of verbal and visual metaphors are similar according to Rothenberg (2008). The concept of “visual metaphor” was first coined in scientific vocabulary by Aldrich (1968), but has been known and used by architects since ancient times. It is quite natural that visual metaphors prevail in architecture since it is a visual art. Designers’ creative ideas are usually in the form of objects or images in their minds, and they cannot be easily verbalized. However, in relation to concrete samples, it is seen that architects not only use visual metaphors directly, they also apply verbal and conceptual metaphors into visual images and by using different interpretations transform them into visual images. As a matter of fact, it is a much more intelligent attitude than using visual metaphors straightaway and has potential to create more sophisticated architectural designs because a concrete graphic image of an abstract concept changes from one architect to another and varies even according to different perspectives of the same architect at different times. Every image appearing as a result of this process would be superposed on previous images. Thus imagination would be activated and new images would emerge. As is the case in painting, during architectural design processes, when the image in the mind of a designer which is the subject of design together with the images of other thing or things used as visual metaphors are overlapped, a stable situation is not created comparable to the light coming from superimposed glass plates of different colors. Mental activities between these images and the changing importance of the images in the mind during the design process keep the imagination of the designer constantly vivid. This situation metaphorically can resemble a kaleidoscope in which the
The role of metaphors in the formation of architectural identity
image e constantly changes. Aiming at solvving the mys stery of the how h human mind works creattively, Rothe enberg (2008 8) states in his h research that many artistss can contem mplate two or o more disccrete entities s at the same time and thus create an art work with w a new identity. He H calls thiss situation “homospatial thinking” and de efines it that it “consists s of actively conceiving two or o more disscrete entitie es occupying g the same e space, a conception leadin ng to the arrticulation off new identitties” (p. 17) which corre esponds to metaphorical tho ought. Accorrding to Ro othenberg (1 1980), durin ng creative proce esses in visu ual arts such as painting, sculpture an nd architectu ure, the role of vissual metapho ors is salientt. Coyne (19 995: 292) als so underliness the same role: “Design can n be characcterized as generating g action within a ‘play’ of metaphor”. Rela ated to Rotthenberg’s discovery, Schwartz (1 1987) has demo onstrated tha at in the Mon na Lisa painting by Leona ardo Da Vincci, it is very likely that Leonardo’s or hiss father’s images are superimpose ed on the image e of the wom man depicted d in this paintting (Figure 1). Mona Lissa as an art work owes its verry impressive e identity to a notion thatt for centuriess has been based d on metap phors an arrgument stre engthening the t hypothe esis of this article e. Conte emporary pro ominent arch hitects especcially Libesskind, Calatra ava, Correa and Holl absstain from direct ana alogy and use narratiives, memories, historrical events, characterisstics relate ed to projectt subjects orr sites or natural structtures as mettaphors. It iss seen that th hese archittects reach h generallyy multi-laye ered, by sophisticated, effective meanings consttantly making mental shifts between n the The verba al and the visual me etaphors. signifficance of this meaning in i relation to o this article e’s argument is that it has a very rema arkable archittectural iden ntity. It should d be noted d that here it is not a completely new mean ning, it iss the mettamorphosis or “reinccarnation” of o one or more exissting mean nings formed through h “homosp patial thinkiing”. It is presumed p th hat architecctural enviro onments re eached thro ough such an appro oach do nott cause alien nation in pe eople and solve the dilemma off creativity and identity. Waks (2001: ( 38) claims that the majorr achievem ment of Schön S who o is rema arkable figure e in design theory research Figurre 1. Mona Lisa L Painting g by Leonarrdo Da has recognized r t the power of metaphor: “He Vinci.. Leonardo’s or his father’s fa ace is disco overed tha at generatiive metaphors superrimposed on o Mona L Lisa by Sch hwartz permitted us to ‘construct meaning in our (1987 7). Source: La L Farge, (19 996) circumstan perpe etually c changing nces, provid ding continu uity between our older exxperiences and a our new w situations by po ointing at sim milarities or fa amily resemb blances betw ween them’ ”.. According to Fe ernandez (19 974), metap phors play at a major role e in identity formation. Creattive or gene erative metap phors enrich h a certain cultural c envirronment by addin ng new meanings (Tucke er, 1994). The T significan nce of repre esentational space e or discoverry is never absolute; on the t contrary, it is always a matter of transformation an nd interpreta ation (Fouca ault, 1986). As A Tucker (1994: 138) hitecture, as in art and literature, can c use me etaphors to pointss out, “Arch
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convey specific philosophy. In some instances, an entire work of art or architecture itself becomes the metaphor”. “Identity is people’s source of meaning and experience” stated by Castells (1997: 6). However, counteracting the architectural deformation created by the uncontrolled power of globalization, without resorting to historical repertoire, there is a need for an architecture expressing societies’ own realities. In order to accomplish this, Castell (1996) points out that we should turn to places, culture and people. In relation to this current need, architecture has become a cultural expression medium gaining importance in creating and developing a social identity (Delanty and Jones, 2002). Due to that, a design approach based on metaphors has recently become pervasive. Such a design approach has a capability of ensuring the “reincarnation” of the existing identity without completely rejecting the old identity and disintegrating with familiar meanings, experiences or shared codes of the society. From the view point of Draaisma (1995), metaphors as literary and scientific structures are the reflections of a certain era, its culture and its environment. The same situation is valid for architecture as well. The new and different identity of each era employing the design approach based on metaphors is reflected in architecture through the metamorphosis of the existing culture. In addition to being a medium for creating new identities and thus enriching the existing culture, metaphors are transmission tools of cultural identity from one place to another. According to Fernandez (1986), this transmission in language or in architectural environment is negotiated through the interplay of contrasting or similar metaphors. 2. Examples based on metaphors prior to the modern movement The ideas about the role of metaphors in architecture date back to ancient times. Vitruvius (1960) suggests the use of nature as metaphor and observation of things growing like a tree almost two millennia ago. He also points out that when people adopted a sedentary life, some build shelters for themselves resembling bird nests by getting inspiration from swallows. As nature designed the human body symmetrically, perfect buildings, particularly temples, were symmetrically designed by the ancients. The reason for the effective identity of Gothic architecture is associated with its use of natural entities’ structures and natural processes as metaphors. Jan Rudolphe Perronet (1770: 39) described the metaphorical basis of Gothic architecture as follows: “The magic of these buildings explained largely by the fact that they were built in some degree, to imitate the structure of animals; the high, delicate columns, the tracery with transverse ribs, diagonal ribs and tiercerons, could be compared to the bones, and the small stones and voussoirs, only four or five inches thick, to the skins of these animals. These buildings could take on a life of their own like a skeleton or the ribs of a boat, which seem to be constructed using similar models”. The constructive success and distinct identity of Gothic architecture could be attributed to the synchronization of its structural system with the “natural flow of forces” and in this sense the application of natural processes as metaphors (Schuyler, 1894). The distinctive and effective identity of the Crystal Palace designed by Joseph Paxton in 1851 is the result of a design approach based on metaphors. Almost one-meter long, the large leaves of a water lily called as Victoria Amazonica are strong enough to carry Paxton’s seven year old
The role of metaphors in the formation of architectural identity
daughter (Figures 2). This strenghth is the results r of rib bs’ of waterr lily stru uctural pattern (Figure 3). He clearly c descrribed his metaphoric m in nspiration in n his lecturre at the Royal R Societty of Arts during d constrruction of Cryystal Palacce as followss: “The underrside of th he leaf presents a beau utiful exam mple of naturral engineerin ng in the cantilevers wh hich radiate from the center, c where e they are ne early two inches deep, with large l bottom flanges and very thin middlle ribs from m buckling; their depth h graduallly decrea ases towarrds the circu umference of the leaf, where the ey also ram mify” (Paxtton, 1850-1 1: p. 6). This obserrvation bring gs to his mind d the idea of building a structure which w has never been n accomplisshed beforre with a light but strong roof. He has also applied to the metaphor of tab ble cloth which w coverrs this roof structure (U Ufuk, 2007). After su uch inspiratiions, Paxto on has use ed steel which w repre esents the function f of ribs and glass g for the e flat surfacce of the leaf. This building has become one of the major m archittectural sym mbols of the New Indusstrial Age (Fig gure 4).
Figurre 2. The piicture depictting the stre ength of watter lily leavess carrying Paxton’s 7-year-old daughter Annie. A Sourcce: Wikipedia a
Figurre 3. Structurral pattern off water lily’s lleaf. Source:: abcmachiine-embroide ery.com
In a similar way, w the sttrong identity of the e Eiffel To ower emerrges from its i metapho orical genes. The construction of this towerr was completed in 1889. Howe ever, the e prelimiinary thoug ghts of this scheme which w was metaphorica m ally tied to na ature were started four decades before. Durin early 185 ng the 50’s, Anato omist Herm man Von Meyer M obserrved that the inte ernal structture of the to op of femur was quite an importan nt element off our skele etal system for transmiitting the weight w of the e human upper body to the legss. He discovvered Figurre 4. Crysta al Palace by b Joseph Paxton. So ource: that the structu ure in the top kathle een-duffy.suiite101.com resem mbled la attice w work. Thom mpson (1948 8: 976) descrribes
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Figurre 5. Eiffel Tower. T Texturre pattern fou und by Von Meyer in the e “femur”, which w is used d as a metap phor during Eiffel Towerr’s design. Source: S Thom mpson, (1948 8).
this s structure called c “trabeculae” as fo ollows: “Th he trabeculae, as seen in a longitudinal sec ction of the femur, sprreads in beautiful currving lines fro om the head of hollow sh haft of the bone; and that these linear bundle es are cro ossed by othe ers, with succh a nice regularity of arrangement a t that each intercrossing g is as nea arly possible as an ortho ogonal one: that t is to say, s the one e set of fiberss or cancelli cross the other everyywhere at rright angles””. Karl Cullman, an en ngineer beca ame interested in Meyer’s works for a crane d design and gained g info ormation from m him. Thom mpson (1948: 977) com mments on this converssation as fo ollows: “Th he engineer, who had bee en busy designing a new n and pow werful crane e, saw in mo oment that the arrangement of the e bony trabe eculae was s nothing mo ore nor less than a diagrram of line es of stress, or direction ns of tension and com mprehension n, in the loa aded structure: In sho ort, nature was w strengthe ening the bo one in pre ecisely the manner m and direction in which stre ength required”. Cullm man solves s the pro oblem in th he crane’s design ins spiring the Meyer’s rese earch and d utilizes tran nsmission off the trabecu ulae pattern to the feet of the con nstruction’s load in the Eiffel Tow wer (Figure 5). Latticew work in this tower sim milar to the cu urvilinear patttern on the top of the femur ensu ures the tran nsmission of loads com ming from th he upper pa art to the ground g (Fig gure 6). Altho ough its funcction is simila ar, the patttern on the femur f is reve ersed here.
odern 3. Examples related tto the mo mo ovement in architecture a e Conforming to transcende ental philoso ophy’s prin nciples, Fran nk Lloyd W Wright, one of o the leading figures of 20th cen ntury archite ecture, say ys nature and natura al processe es he obs served are the t guiding principles or o the main metapho ors of his d design apprroach. Wright discovered the o order and unity prin nciple in natture. Accord ding to him “order gav ve life its form m and unity gave form itts life” (Bo olon, Nelson and Seidel, 1988: 86). Wright W Figurre 6. Eiffel Tower T by Gusstave Eiffel. adm mired humb ble weeds as they em mbody Sourcce: polylookss.wordpress.com these principles and he w would ride on o his horse to pick p some of o them. Mo oreover, natu ural objects occupied a great place in his Oak Park’ss studio libra ary and he prrobably bene efited from th hem to find the main m concep pt of his des signs (Bolon n, Nelson an nd Seidel, 1988). 1 Wright trie ed to discove er the natura al pattern of structures a and the secrrets of nature’s order. o He co onceived na ature as an organism a and, similarlly, he
m in the e formation of arrchitectural iden ntity The role of metaphors
sugge ested that within w his con ncept of organ nic architectu ure a buildin ng is an organ nism. H He con nsidered consttruction as a living entity, e a produ uct of circumstance, a unified respo onse to function, materrial and enviro onmental forces an nd the archittect as an “in nstrument off nature” (Stua art, 1992: 35). His statem ment, “A buildiing dignified d as a tree e in the midstt of nature” (Wright, 19 954: 50) refleccts such a pe erception. However, Wrigh ht’s usage of o metaphorss is not limite ed to nature. For instance e, in the Meeting “Unita arian Com mmunity Cente er”, the trinityy of the Fath her, Son and Holy Gh host is reflected r metaphorically in n his design (Figure 7). Th he capabilityy of using me etaphors during design processe es in realizzation of buildings with apparent a and strong ide entity is co onfirmed within n the contexxt of Wright’ss design appro oach.
Fiigure 7. Un niterian Com mmunity Me eeting Centter by Frrank L. Wrigh ht. Source: forconstructio fo onpros.com
There e are two metaphors in the Glasss Pavilion designed d byy Bruno Taut for the Werrkbund Exhib bition in Colog gne, Germany in 1914 (Figure 8). The first meta aphor used by Taut in th his design is the visio on and Paul propo ositions in ncluded in Sche eerbart’s boo ok “Glassarch hitectur” Fiigure 8. Gla ass Pavilion by b Bruno Ta aut. Source: Curtis which h was publiished in the e same (2 2011) year. According to the poe et, in a transparent and splendid s utop pist world, wh here all architecture is co omposed of glasss, the dicho otomy of internal and d external environmentts will be elimin nated. And as a a result, in n such an en nvironment, there will be e no ethical problems. Taut is inspired by his ap phorism “Lig ght wants crystal”. c In accorrdance with Scheerbart’s ideas, the e dome of th he Glass Pa avilion was desig gned with double-glazed d d walls who ose colored d prism is inside and reflecctive glass iss outside (Tu ucker, 1994). The second d metaphor used u in this buildiing is Gothic architecture. Accordin ng to Taut, this structure aims to reflecct the spirit of o Gothic catthedrals and d the pyramid dal shape off the crown is, in n the words of Frampto on (1980: 116), a “univ versal parad digm of all religio ous building gs, which tog gether with the faith it would inspire was an essen ntial urban element for th he structuring g of society”. One of the prima ary fields refe erred by arch hitecture as a metaphor is science. Einstein’s relativvity theory especiallyy has perv vasive refle ections in archittecture. Mendelson is in nspired by th his theory be elieving that it reaffirms archittects’ and engineers’ e lo oyalty to na ature. Mendelson uses the terms “nature” and cosmos to mea an exchange eable nature of matter and energy. He has tended to o explain hiss own archite ectural spac ce in terms of o light and masss correspond ding to energy and matterr in Einstein’s theory (Fig gure 9). His
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buildin ng called Ein nstein’s Towe er or the Pottsdam Observ vatory, is associated with Einstein an nd his theory y of relativity and a metaph horical expres ssion of parradigm of re eality and at a the same time t Taut’s Glass G Pavilio on (Tucker, 1994). Tatlin was also inspired by Eiinstein’s theory of relativiity in his de esign of the Monument to t the Third Internationall (Figure 10)). This monu ument was designed as a double ste eel spiral ske eleton surrounding three geometric fo orms revolvin ng and creatin ng a vertica al stacking. The huge glass drum at a the bottom m is designe ed to slowly make revoluttion once a year; tthe next higher h Figurre 9. Ein nstein Tow wer by Eric E Mend delson. Sourrce: fotocomm munity.de pyramidal form on nce a month h and the highest cylinde er once a day. This tow wer, conside ered a part of o “real time e and spacce” seems to be related d to the dyn namics of mo otion to reprresent the his storical journ ney in space e. Tatlin integ grates time and the spatial position m metaphoricallly and expres sses space’s relation to history. This means s alienation from a p psychological and transcendental tim me dimension n of non-Euclidean geome etry and fo ourth dimen nsion philos sophy. Accord ding to Krausss (1981: 56 6), this tower is the “extern nalization of o the stru uctural logic of sculptu ure”. Getting g inspiration n from Eins stein’s relativiity theory, in n his design he expresse es the idea th hat time and space are in nterconnecte ed and interch hangeable. Related to transitional unders standing between the fo ourth dimens sion of non-Eu uclidian geometry and E Einstein’s rellativity theory y, Tatlin has used time o only as the fourth dimens sion. He created a metaphorr for interac ctive space reversing the interiorr and Figurre 10. Third Internationa al Monumentt by exterio or space re elationship incorporating g the Vladiimir Tatlin. So ource: Curtiss (2011) motion n. Here intterior and exterior ca an be converted with each other. On the other hand, time repressented with motion m is identified with space e. Tatlin used d a skeletal structure s as a metaphor on o the external surface, s it iss beyond the e interplay between b inte erior and ex xterior because what w is aime ed to be exp pressed here e is that inte ernal and ex xternal space is dependent d o the position of the observer on o (Tu ucker, 1994). This monumentt with its distinguished status in arrchitectural h history is an nother confirmatio on of metaph hor’s effective role in form ming an architectural iden ntity. Another architect who is interested d in time and space nottion which ga ains a different and a to som me extent metaphysica m l meaning after Einste ein is Buckminisster Fuller. He H explains that his primary source e of inspirattion is Einstein’s relativity the eory as follo ows: “Obviously, we mu ust now aba andon the unreallistic ‘at restt’ and refer all our affairrs to the rea alistic yardsttick of energy an nd its veloccity aspect, as recently and univerrsally adopte ed by science fro om Albert Einstein’s work k” (Fuller, 19 963: 201). Fu uller’s archite ectural forms are metaphorica al expression ns related to his understa anding of rellativity theory. Fo or Fuller, fourth dimens sion architeccture should have been n in a
m in the e formation of arrchitectural iden ntity The role of metaphors
circullar form sym mbolizing tim me by radius. Time is measured as a the distan nce from th he Center column c (Hend derson, 198 83). It is obsserved that Bruno Tautt’s Glass Pavilion inspirres Fuller ass well and he e used it as a metaphorr in his imprressive geodesic dome (Tucker, 1994) (Figure 11). At this point, bea aring in mind that Gothic architectu ure is used as a me etaphor in Glass Paviliion, it can be b conclude ed that geodesic dome is in a sense indire ect metamorrphosis or “ssecond reinca arnation” of Gothic G Archite ecture. This indicates tha at metaphorss have capab bility of conttinuously en nsuring the re einvigoration n of old iden ntity in accorrdance with h the “zeiitgeist” witho out complete ely breaking g with and the familiar meanings experriences of people. p Hend derson (1983 3: 236) points p out that Geod desic dome as “fundam mental minim mal structure e of the universe” develloped with Fuller’s cha anging intere est from circcle to tetrahedron. Fullerr relates his comprehenssion of geodesic dome’ss unique stru uctural strength to the interchangeab bility of energ gy and ma atter accordiing to Einstein’s E=mc²² formulation and uses this forrmulation as a a metaphor (Tucke er, 1994). Fuller’s F distin nct designs influe entially refleccted in th he memorie es of archittects and archite ectural stude ents owe th heir identity to a desig gn approa ach based d on metaphors.
Fig gure 11. Geo odesic Dome by Buckmin nster Fuller. Sou urce: xlili.worrdpress.com
gure 12. Villa a Savoy by Le Corbusie er. Source: ireneFig ngo octa.blogspot.com
Metaphors again n play the primary p role in creating g the distinctive identity of Le Corbusier’s Villa Savo oy which is one of the e most imporrtant and mo ost frequentlyy cited buildiings of modern archite ecture. gure 13. Lud dving Lohse’ss drawing wh hich indicate es that This metaphor is cinema whicch is a Fig cine ema is used d as a meta aphor in Villa a Savoy. So ource: new medium and d a technolo ogically Pen nz, (2006) new invention at that time. According to Colo omina (1987), Le Corbussier’s architec cture is the result r of his positiioning himse elf behind th he camera. Colomina (1 1994: 5-6), states that “Modern eyes mo ove. Vision in i Le Corbussier’s archite ecture is alw ways tied to move ement: You follow f an itin nerary, a “pro omenade arc chitecturale”. The point of vie ew of modern architecturre is never fiixed, as in baroque b arch hitecture, or
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as in the model of vision of o the camerra obscura, but alway ys in motion n, as in film m or in the e city” (Figure e 12, 13). S Such an attitu ude is clearlyy observed in n Villa Savoy y. It is not possible to comprehend d this buildin ng from a sin ngle point off view; howevver, a moviing eye like e the camerra in cinema could perce eive it. From Sarkis’ S (2002 2) perspectiv ve, Le Corbussier’s interacction with ciinema is beyyond that. B Because herre the consta ants can be manipulated d as it is the case in cine ema. Emptyin ng the space enables more conttinuity. From this t respect,, it is obviou us that Le Corbusier is ussed as a mettaphor deliberrately and ssystematically y with the inffluence of the e cinema. An nother design n of him, R Ronchamp Chapel C built in 1955 w which has strong s identityy is based d on theological metaphors. Many ssketches ma ade by him clearly demon nstrate th hat Le Corbussier is tryin ng to establlish a relationship bettween Figurre 14. Le Po oème de l’An ngle de Droiit.Le Corbusiier’s mysticcal c drawiings indicatting the myystic relatio onship betw ween Mary’ss body and the church es 14, 15).. In this ch hapel, Maryy’s body and d Ronchamp p Chapel. Source: S Sam muel, (Figure there is i another m metaphorical layer. (1999 9) It is the t interactio on with mo ortuary sculptu ures in Brrittany regio on of France e (Samuel, 1999). 4. Ex xamples re elated to after moderrn movemen nt Turkish Historical Society Bu uilding of Turg gut Canseve er and Ertur Yener Y in Ankkara emerge ed from the castle by indicated metaphor as Canse ever’s sketch h on this mattter as the ma ain function of this build ding is to protect historica al documentts like a ca astle (Figurres 16). Castle C metaphor is exxpressed in n the net massivve Figurre 15. Ronch hamp Chape el. Source: weareprivate. w the surface es where columns on o the ground floor of the e building grrasps the firsst floor cantilevers and upperr ending proffiles of these surfaces wh hich are rese embled to bastions (Ulusu, 19 990). This statement s by y Cansever demonstrate es that a se econd metaphor was also ussed in this building’s b pla an scheme fformation: “D During my historyy of art studies, I was visiting mo onuments an nd buildings s from Ottoman period p such as a madrasas s etc. I was observing o ho ow people us sed to live in these buildingss (Figure 17)). There werre rooms, po orch... One or o two people wo ould use th he same room to study, people u use the porrch to
m in the e formation of arrchitectural iden ntity The role of metaphors
comm municate and disccuss thingss... It was like an ago ora! First discussionss made when walking in ope en spaces of Athen ns... In fact, if madrasa has the features f of revealing the of collecctive charracteristics scien ntific research h, I thought that t a pla ace in the center c togetther with such s a meetting room, sttudy rooms on the up pper floors and library could represent freed dom of collective studyy and a solution could d be allowiing for it. So madrrasa plan played p a role” (Tanyyeli, Yücel, 2007: 2 174). It is seen that the use e of castles and madrrasas as me etaphors givve a strong identity to this building. e 16. Turgut Cansever’ss sketch sho owing clearly y that Corre ea’s Jawaha ar Kala Ken ndra Figure castle metaphor is s used in the e design pro cesses of Tu urkish Art Center C in Jaip pur dedicated d to y Building. Source: Tanyeli and Yücel, Y Nehru u is another example of the Historrical Society signifficant role played byy a (2007)) desig gn approacch based on metaphors in creating an archittectural identity. There e is codin ng which is the t metapho or of the archaic a Notiion of Cosm mos comp pletely identiccal to Navgraha mand dala (Correa a, 1996). Ass a matte er of fact, this coding is not the new attitu a ude. In arran ngement Ja aipur city plan p which h was dessigned in 17th 1 centu ury, 9 chequ uered Navgraha mand dala used ass a metaphorr by Maha araja Jaissingh (Jad dav, 1998). So the ma ain arrangem ment planss of this citty and this art cente er are the sa ame. It is based on the t division of a squ uare evenlly into 9 little squa ares repre esenting 9 planets p (Figu ures e 17. Turkis sh Historical Society Bu uilding by Turgut T 18, 19). 1 Howeve er, “Shukra”” of Figure Canse ever and Er rtur Yener. Source: Ta anyeli and Yücel, Y these e was moved d to one side e in (2007) ) a way w that would w be the remin niscent of the e entrance place p in the Jaipur J city plan. It is also o the same in the e art center. Main functio onal groups of o Jawahar Kala K Kendra are placed in 9 squares s acco ording to the e characterisstics attribute ed to imagina ary planets in the e archaic erra. For instance, while administratio a n is in Mangal square which h representss power, library is in Guru G square e which is believed b to repre esent wisdom m (Figures 20, 2 21). Meta aphors play active role in detailed desig gns. This fea ature is intercconnected in n Rahu squa are which is the t symbol of de evourer and restorer r at th he same time and it is depicted d as intercepting
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Figurre 18. Jaipu ur City Plan n was based d on 9 chequ ured Navvgraha m mandala. S Source: bolojii.com
cirrcular walls and a contrast of black and white hues. In this section s a co olumn is als so the me etaphor of the axis of U Universe (Correa, 19 996). While adapting a thiss mandala to t the conditions of the t contemp porary era, on o the one hand Correa attempte ed to expres ss the roo ots of societyy, enlive the e past in collective me emory and on o the other hand indicate the social change.. Jadav (199 98) interpretts this ap pproach as a search for identity by Indian arc chitecture which w is believed to o be alie enated from m local and national id dentity during the pe eriod of colo onization for 200 years. Here, metaphoriccal approac ch of Co orrea which is based o on cosmolo ogy of Jaipur City pllan is seen n as an exa ample wh hich ensuress historical continuity without w los sing the pu urpose of re enewal and thus atttempting tow wards the solution of crea ativityide entity dilemm ma.
Ste even Holl’s interaction a area in his Stretto S Ho ouse is music m which h is traditionally considered to be b close to a architecture due d to its abstract na ature (Pallasmaa, 2005) and , but at the sam me time creattes difficulty when used as a metaphorr due to this ab bstractness. By overcom ming this diffficulty, Ho oll realized Stretto Ho ouse which h has be ecome matter of research hes because e of its dis stinct identityy. In relation n to “homos spatial mages Figurre 19. Charrles Correa’ss sketch ind dicating thinking”, therre are two discrete im ere; on e iss superposed d and interacting that Jawahar Kala K Kendra based upo on the he mu usical composition, the other is ex xisting Jaipu ur City Plan. Source: Corrrea (1996) wa ater dams in n the site. In n the projec ct site, the e sound crea ated by wate er flowing fro om the spring and ove erflowing from m the water jumps j associates Holll’s mind to th he Stretto pa artition in the fuguess. Holl listen ns a piece from Ba artok when he h is workin ng on this prroject, and accordin ng to him,, this piec ce is compatible witth golden se ection and has an arc chitectonic structure. Holl (1996a a: 7) wrrites, “In a fug gue stretto, tthe imitation of the subject in clo ose successsion is answ wered be efore it is completed. This dovetailing mu usical conce ept could, I imagined, be b an ide ea for a fluiid connectio on of archite ectural an of Jawa ahar Kala Kendra Figurre 20. Pla spaces. A pa articular piecce of music c was Cultu ural Center by Charless Correa. Source: S chosen for its extensive u use of stretto o-Béla jawah harkalakendrra.rajasthan.gov.in Ba artok’s Musicc for Strings, Percussion n, and Ce elesta (Figure e 22, 23). In n four movem ments, the piece has h distinct division d betw ween heavy (percussion) and light (strrings). Where music m has a materialitty in instru umentation and sound, this
m in the e formation of arrchitectural iden ntity The role of metaphors
archittecture attem mpts an analog in ligh ht and space e”. As the piece has four parts, the house h also has four parrts which can n be characte erized as lig ght and heavvy ones. Whiile the rectan ngular heavyy parts ha ave the massive m con ncrete chara acteristics, th he curvilinear light transp parent sectio ons are consstructed with h steel and glass. This arrangemen nt of heavy and light pa arts is also metaphorica al expressio on of solid water damn ns in the site e and the fllowing waterr over them (Holl, 1996b). In the main m building, plan geom metry is orrthogonal while w the section geom metry is currvilinear. Ass the melo ody is playe ed reverselyy in this kin nd of piece,, it is refleccted in the architecture a o guest hou of use as curvillinear plan geometry and ortho ogonal sectio on geometryy. Reflective and brilliantt floor material is chose en because it expresse es the waterry characteristic of the site. Goethe’s metaphorical de efinition as “architecture is frozen music” beccomes literallly concrete in this desig gn.
ure 21. Jaw wahar Kala Kendra Cultural Figu Charles Cen nter by C Correa. So ource: caro oun.com
Parc de Villette which has distinct d iden ntity is anoth her example e related to the result of o the intera action with other o areas in n a design. In I this experriential project, cinema a is used as a metaphor. Tschu umi (1981) has h propose ed the idea that cinema theory ca an be appliied in archittectural design process in his book called Figu ure 22. Strettto House byy Steven Holll. The “The Manhattan Transcripts” and then he has rela ationship bettween Bartok’s musical piece an op pportunity to o put this ide ea into practtice in whic ch is used ass a metapho or and the Ho ouse’s his “Parc “ de Villette” Proje ect. According to mod del. Source: Garofalo (20 003) Tschu umi, cinema a is based on discontin nuous narra atives. Disccontinuity instruments are juxtap position, fram mes, montag ge, cut etc. re elated to cinema techn niques (Figu ure 24). Tschumi used the sequence techniq que in cinem ma to expre ess moveme ent. In the design of units havin ng different functions f of this park wh hich is define ed as “Cinem matic Promenade of Gard dens”. Anoth her remarkab ble aspect off this design is the metaphor of film strip. The main walkw way, is the metaphor m of sound trackk on the film strip, foliess arranged sequentiallyy to be seen in juxtap position from m different an ngles from above, a below w or any other viewpoint in the Figu ure 23. Elevation E off Stretto House. H enviro onment are the metapho ors of image e track Sou urce: Garofallo (2003) on th he film. Eacch “folie” displays a distinct d image e. In other words, w they are a arranged one after an nother withou ut exposing any fo ormal relatio onship to eacch other as it is the discon ntinuity case e in cinema. Perte euiset (1990: 11) points out, o “In its bu uilt form, the park is expe erienced as dicho otomized bettween, on the one hand, thematic un nits of experience each forma alized as arcchitectural objects of gardens, and on o the otherr hand, the distan nce to be covered c betw ween each of o these eve ents analogous to the abstrract time thatt connects ph hotograms”.
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Figure 24. Parc de la Villette by Tschumi. The use of juxtaposition, frames, cut and montage techniques in cinema as a metaphor in architecture. Source: paavo.tumblr.com
The disruption and distortion of David’s Star in the plan geometry of Libeskind’s Jewish Museum in Berlin, and deep crack formed on the façades of the building are the metaphors of the cruel things confronted by Jewish people during World War II (Figure 25). During the design processes, Libeskind also tended to express metaphorically, Berlin Wall with broken lines and Landwehr Channel with curvilinear lines (Figure 26). Within the framework of Libeskind’s multilayered interpretation, the Star has more than one meaning here. In Libeskind’s (1997: 113) words, one of them is “to integrate the German and Jewish histories of Berlin”. Conceptually, Star is the embodiment of Jewish and German people and symbolizes their crisscross cultures. With a set of sketches, Libeskind initiates to establish a connection between the architecture and the city, and Star form in these sketches is the main tool relating the individual building to the city (Doğan, 2003). During the design generation processes here, it is obvious that the physical characteristic of site area’s surroundings and the history of that place are interrelated. According to Frampton (1982), establishing a relation between project subject and place in this sense will result in a certain character and give a sense of identity to the society. Libeskind thinks that monuments are as necessary as history in order to ensure that people could live the moment by overcoming the traumas of the past. According to him, any Jewish monument in Berlin reflects the “permanent presence of absence” because even if it is not seen, it is there; it is a part of the space in which the city also carries its own absence (Delanty and Jones, 2002). According to Delanty and Jones (2002), Libeskind’s notion of German ‘non identity’ can be interpreted as a desire for evolving a universal, post-national identity rather than a certain, national identity (Figure 27). However, there is no doubt that Berlin Jewish Museum has a very apparent and strong architectural identity. He also attributes this identity to the metaphorical approach used during design processes as it is the case in other examples.
5. Conclusions The main purpose of architecture is to design unique architectural environments and consequently generate effective architectural Figure 25. Daniel Libeskind’s sketch for identities which broaden the feelings, thoughts Jewish Museum expressing the cruel event and imagination of human beings; in short, their during World War II. Source: Doğan (2003) The role of metaphors in the formation of architectural identity
experriential realm m. There iss no exten nsive argum ment over this purpo ose, but it is a challeng ging and crucial c task to generate this identity in archiitectural design proce esses since e there are no comm monly acce epted formulas be dire and methods ectly beneficial to the achievemen nt of this critical tassk. Scien ntific methods and ap pproaches have h neverr been sufficcient enough h to solve e architecctural isssues becau use scientific problems are chara acteristically different from f archittectural prob blems. Howe ever, ordinary science’’s problems are “tame e” and thus generally g can n be solve ed with linearr methods ba ased on rationality. These lin near methods and approaches are a Figure e 26. Daniel Libeskind’s sketch. s Meta aphoric expre ession incap pable of solvving architecttural of Berl rlin Wall and Landwehr Channel. C Source: Doğan (2003) ( desig gn problem ms as th hese problems, defined d as “wicked d” or “ill-strructured”, are too complex to be b solved through lin near methods. Both rational and and objecctive reasoning; an imaginative nd subjecctive aspeccts are need ded concurre ently to solve these kin nds of proble ems. The solution off this essential archittectural prob blem seemss to be de ependent on n the acquisition of an a appropria ate tool which would d meet the e demandss of these e two aspeccts at the sa ame time during the design proce esses. The discussion d so o far about design prrocesses of the e 27. Jewish h Museum by Daniel L Libeskind. So ource: exam mples havving effecctive Figure wayfar ring.info archittectural iden ntities indica ates that this tool could be a de esign approa ach based on metapho or because metaphor defined d as a mattter of “imag ginative ratio onality”, is capable of reach hing new rea alities, and embraces botth objective and subjective aspects of a reality. r By ha aving this cap pacity, metap phor is seen as a very va aluable tool for th he designer who needs both rational thought and a imagina ation at the same e time and seeks a unique situation,, in this sens se, a new re eality which has never n been experienced e before. As metaphorical m thinking is not n a logical linearr way of thinking, it is presumed that architec ctural design n which is essen ntially a “non n-linear” prog gression, wo ould allow forr better comprehension and conduct c in accordance a w architecctural design with n’s “recursive e aspect of comp plexity”. Since e Aristotle a large numbe er of philosophers and re esearchers in ndicate the positiive role played by metaphors on creativ vity, primarily in art;
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subsequently, in science and other disciplines. It is seen that recently the interest in the relationship between metaphorical thinking and creativity in almost every field is progressively increasing. The essence of metaphor is understanding, experiencing, thinking and designing one kind of thing in terms of another. Research, initated to solve the mystery of how the human mind works during the creative process, demonstrates that when human mental attention is constantly switching from one discrete image to another, these images overlap in the mind. This is exemplified in da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. Successful results are attained, consequently leading to the formation of a new identity. This situation which is called as “homospatial thinking” by Rothenberg is the same as the metaphorical thinking. The significant role of metaphors in the formation of architectural identity has been realized and applied by architects since Vitruvius. When architects implemented this tool, they created architectural works which have indelible reflections on human mind, some of which are discussed in this article. These are beyond being single examples. Apart from the examples pointed out in this article, there are many other architectural works which indicate a strong correlation between the design approach based on metaphors and effective architectural identity. It is seen that many architects have generated new images by triggering their imagination by overlapping two or more discrete images in their minds through homospatial thinking, particularly related to properties of a project topic or site area. Prominent architects such as Wright, Taut, Le Corbusier, Tatlin, Fuller, Cansever, Correa, Calatrava, Holl and Libeskind have been able to generate multilayered, sophisticated and significant meanings through this approach. The important point here is that these significant meanings are not entirely new; as a matter of fact these are the metamorphosed forms of one or more existing meaning through “homospatial thinking”. In this sense, it is seen that existing meanings or images reincarnate and come into existence in a refreshed form. As a result, architectural environments which are generated with this approach have the capacity to meet the two apparently contradictory needs of societies: one is renewal; the other is not being alienated from the existing cultural identity. Under current circumstances, architecture has become a quite important medium in creating and developing social identity as people demand an architectural environment which is not unfamiliar to the existing material and nonmaterial culture and reflects their own reality and identity instead of boredom and monotony created by the uncontrolled power of globalization. As seen in the examples, a design approach based on metaphors gives architects the opportunity of metamorphosis in accordance with the “zeitgeist” without breaking with the familiar meanings, values and shared codes of society and also without ignoring the need for renewal. References Bateson, G. (1988), “Men are Grass: Metaphor and the World of Mental Process, in W.I. Thompson (Ed.), Gaia, a Way of Knowing, Political Implications of the New Biology, The Lindisfarne Press. New York, pp. 37–47 Bolon, C. R., Nelson, R. S., Seidel, L. (1988), The Nature of Frank Lloyd Wright, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London Castells, M. (1997), The Power of Identity, the Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Vol. II., Blackwell, Cambridge,
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Massachusetts and Oxford, UK Castells, M. (1996), The Rise of the Network Society: the Information Age, Vol. I., Blackwell. Oxford, UK Colomina, B. (1987), “Le Corbusier and Photography”, Assemblage, No: 4, pp. 6-24 Colomina, B. (1994), Publicity and Privacy, Modern Architecture as Mass Media, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts Correa, C. (1996), Charles Correa, Thames and Hudson Ltd., London Coyne, R., Snodgrass, A. (1991), “Is Designing Mysterious? Challenging the Dual Knowledge Thesis”, Design Studies, Vol.12, No. 3, July, pp. 124-131. Coyne, R. (1995), Designing Information Technology, From Method to Metaphor, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts Delanty, G., Jones, P. R. (2002), “European Identity and Architecture”, European Journal of Social Theory, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 453–466 Doğan, F. (2003), The Role of Conceptual Diagrams in the Architectural Design Process, Georgia Institute of Technology, unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation Draaisma, D. (1995), Metaphors of Mind, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts Ersoy, U. (2008) Seeing Through Glass: The Fictive Role of Glass in Shaping Architecture From Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palaceto Bruno Taut’s Glass House, unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania Ferguson, E. S. (1977), The Mind’s Eye: Nonverbal Thought in Technology, Science, Vol.197, No. 4306, pp. 827–836 Fernandez, J. (1974), “The Mission of Metaphor in Expressive Culture”, Current Anthropology, Vol.15, No. 2, pp. 119–145 Fernandez, J. (1986), Persuasion and Performances: the Play of Tropes in Culture, Indiana University Press, Bloomington Foucault, M. (1986), “Of Other Spaces”, Diacritics, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 22-27 Frampton, K. (1980), Modern Architecture: a Critical History, Oxford University Press, New York Frampton, K. (1982), “Place, Production and Architecture: Towards a Critical Theory of Building”, in K. Frampton (Ed.), Modern Architecture and the Critical Present, Architectural Design, London, pp. 291-311 Fuller, B. (1963), Ideas and Integrities, MacMillan, New York Henderson, L. D. (1983), The Fourth Dimension and Non-euclidean Geometry in Modern Art, PrincetownUniversity Press, Princeton Holl, S. (1996a), Stretto House, Monacelli Press, New York Holl, S. (1996b), Intertwining, Princetown Architectural Press, New York Holton, G. (1998), The Scientific Imagination, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts Indurkhya, B. (1999), “Creativity of Metaphor in Perceptual Symbol Systems”, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 122, No. 2, pp. 621-622. Jadav, R. U. (1998), Eastern Regionalism and Indian Identity: a Case Study of Charles Correa’s Inter University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics’ and Raj Rewal’s Central Institute of Educational Technology, Kansas State University, Master Thesis Johnson, M. (1987), The Body in the Mind: the Body Basis Meaning and Reason, Chicago University Press, Chicago Krauss, R. E. (1981), Passages in Modern Sculpture, MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts
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Lakoff, G. (1987), Women, Fire and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind, University of Chicago Press, Chicago Ledewitz, S. (1984), “Models of Design in Studio Teaching”, Journal of Architectural Education (1984- ), Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 2–8 Libeskind, D. (1997), “Discussion”, in D. Libeskind and A. P. Belloli (Eds.), Daniel Libeskind, Radix-Matrix: Architecture and Writings, New York and Munich, pp.112–115 Norton, B. G. (2002), “Building Demand Models to Improve Environmental Policy Process”, in L. Magnani, N. J. Nersessian (Eds.), ModelBased-Reasoning, Science, Technology, Values, Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 191–208 Pallasmaa, J. (2006), “Existential Space in Architecture and Cinema”, in B. Uluoğlu, A. Ensici and A. Vatansever (Eds.), Design and Cinema: Form Follows Film, Cambridge Scholar Press, Newcastle, pp. 1120 Paxton, J., (1850-1), Transaction of the Royal Society of Art 57, p.6; quoted in Ersoy, U. (2008) Seeing Through Glass: The Fictive Role of Glass in Shaping Architecture From Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palaceto Bruno Taut’s Glass House, unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania Perronet, J. R. (1770), “Letter to Mercure de France”, quoted in Steadman, P. (2007), The Evolution of Designs, Biological Analogy in Architecture and the Applied Arts, Routledge, London and New York Pertuiset, N. (1990), “The Floating Eye”, Journal of Architectural Education (1984-), Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 7-13 Ricoeur, P. (1991), A Ricoeur Reader in Reflection and Imagination, M. J. Valdes (Ed.), University of Toronto Press, Toronto Rittel, H. W. J., Webber, M. M. (1973), “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning”, Policy Sciences, Vol. 4, pp. 155–169 Rothenberg, A. (1976), “Homospatial Thinking in Creativity”, Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 17–26 Rothenberg, A. (1980), “Visual Art, Homospatial Thinking in the Creative Process”, Leonardo, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 17–27 Rothenberg, A. (2008), “Rembrandt’s Creation of the Pictorial Metaphor of Self”, Metaphor and Symbol, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 108–122 Samuel, F. (1999), “Representation of Mary in the Architecture of Le Corbusier’s Chapel at Ronchamp”, Church History, Vol. 68, No. 2, pp. 398–416. Sarkis, M. (2002), “Constants in Motion: Le Corbusier’s “Rule of Movement” at the CarpenterCenter”, Perspekta, Vol. 33, pp. 114-125 Schuyler, M. (1894), “Modern Architecture”, Architectural Record, Vol.1, No. 4, pp. 1-13, quoted in Steadman, P. (2007), The Evolutions of Designs, Biological Analogy in Architecture and the Applied Arts, Routledge, London and New York Schwartz, L. (1987), “Leonardo’s Mona Lisa”, Art and Antiques, Vol. 10, pp. 50–54, quoted in Rotenberg, A. (2008) “Rembrandt’s Creation of the Pictorial Metaphor of Self ”, Metaphor and Symbol, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp.108-129 Simon, H. A. (1973), “The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems”, Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 4, pp. 181–201 Stuart, K. M. (1993), On Architecture, Nature and Man, Rice University, Master Thesis Tanyeli, U., Yücel, A. (2007), Turgut Cansever, Düşünce Adamı ve
The role of metaphors in the formation of architectural identity
Mimar,Osmanlı Bankası Arşiv ve Araştırma Merkezi ve Garanti Galeri Press, İstanbul Thompson, D. W. (1948), On Growth of Form, MacMillan, New York Tschumi, B. (1981), The Manhattan Transcripts, Academy Editions, St. Martin Press, London Tucker, B. I. (1994), The Role of Metaphors in the Shift to a Quantal Paradigm, The University of Texas, unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation Ulusu, T. (1990), “Mimari Tasarımda ‘Concept’ ”, Yapı, Ekim Vitruvius (1960), Ten Books on Architecture, Trans.: M. H. Morgan, Dover Publication Inc., New York Wakkary, R. (2005), “Framing Complexity Design and Experience: a Reflective Analysis”, Digital Creativity, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 65–78 Waks, L. J. (2001), “Donald Schön’s Philosophy of Design and Design Education”, International Journal of Technology and Design Education, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 37–51 White, W. (2006), “How do Buildings mean? Some ıssues of Interpretation in the History of Architecture”, History of Theory, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 153–177 Wright, F. L. (1954). Natural House, Horizon, New York Mimari kimliğin oluşumunda metaforların rolü Diğer sanat alanlarında olduğu gibi mimarlığın da temel amacı, insanoğlunun duygu, düşünce ve imgelem dünyasını genişleten, o güne kadar hiç deneyimlenmemiş, kendine özgü bir durumu ortaya çıkarabilmektir. Kimlik kavramı ile kendine özgülük kavramları aynı anlamda kullanılabilecek kadar birbirlerine yakındırlar. Bu bakımdan mimarlığın temel amacı, belirli bir kimliği olan bir binayı tasarlamak şeklinde de tanımlanabilir. Mimari tasarlama süreçlerinde bu temel amacın nasıl başarılacağı büyük oranda belirsiz, açık ve kesin yöntemi ortaya konmamış bir konu olmakla birlikte, mimarın bir şekilde mutlaka çözmesi gereken önemli bir meseledir. Bu makalenin birbiriyle ilişkili iki amacından birincisi, geçmiş ve günümüz mimarlığında güçlü kimliği olan, bu nedenle de belleklerde iz bırakan binaların tasarım süreçlerini irdeleyerek bu güç problemin çözümü konusunda metaforların oynadığı etkin rolü belirleyebilmektir. İkinci amacı ise, toplumların bir yandan yenileşme, öte yandan da mevcut kültürel kimliğine ve bu kimliğin bir öğesi olan mimari çevreye yabancılaşmama gibi birbiriyle çelişkili görünen iki ihtiyacına metaforları esas alan bir tasarlama yaklaşımının aynı anda cevap verme potansiyeline işaret etmektir. Metaforun yaratıcı çalışmalardaki etkin rolüne işaret eden ve bu kavramı tanımlayan bilinen en eski düşünür Aristotle’dır. Sadece sanatta değil bilim ve teknolojide de yaratıcılık üzerinde metaforların oynadığı etkin rol üzerinde Aristotle’da bu yana pek çok düşünür ve araştırmacı durmuştur. Metaforun esası bir şeyi başka bir şeyin koşulları ile anlamak, deneyimlemek, tasavvur etmek ve tasarlamaktır. Bunun imgelemin etkinliğini artırdığı dolayısı ile yaratıcı çalışmalarda olumlu rol oynadığı ve yeni gerçeklikleri ortaya koyma kapasitesinde olduğu konusunda araştırmacılar genel bir görüş birliği içinde görünmektedirler. İnsan zihninin yaratıcı süreç sırasında nasıl işlediğini çözmeye girişen araştırmalar, Leonardo’nun Mona Lisa tablosunda örneklendiği gibi, iki veya daha fazla imge arasında zihnin sürekli gidip gelmesinin ve bunların zihinde üst üste örtüşmesinin yaratıcılığı tetikleyerek, sanatçıyı başarılı sonuçlara götürdüğü ve dolayısı ile yeni ve güçlü kimliği olan sanat eserlerinin bu yolla ortaya konulabileceğine işaret etmektedir. Rothenberg’in “homospatial thinking” diye adlandırdığı bu durum metaforik düşünce tarzının bir başka şekilde anlatımıdır. Mimari tasarım problemleri, “iyi huylu” bu nedenle de rasyonelliği esas alan doğrusal metotlarla çözümlenebilecek doğal bilim problemlerinden farklı, karmaşık “kötü huylu” veya “kötü yapıdaki” problemlerdir. Bu nitelikteki tasarlama problemleri tamamıyla lineer, rasyonel, mantıksal metotlarla çözülemeyecek kadar karmaşık, objektif ve sübjektif yönlerin her ikisinin de aynı anda gözetilmesini ve yaratıcılığı gerektiren problemlerdir. Lakoff ve Johnson tarafından “imgelemsel rasyonalite” olarak tanımlanan metaforların, bu tanım çerçevesinde objektif ve sübjektif gereklilikleri aynı
ITU A|Z 2012- 9/ 2 – N. Ayıran
anda karşılama potansiyelinin mimarlıkta fark edilip, kullanılmasının geçmişi hayli eskidir; Vitruvius’a kadar uzanır. Bu kapasiteleri nedeniyle, metaforlar daha önce deneyimlenmemiş kendine özgü bir durumu ve bu anlamda yeni bir gerçekliği ortaya koyma peşinde koşan, bunun için de hem rasyonel düşünceye ve hem de imagination’a aynı anda ihtiyaç duyan tasarımcının karşı karşıya bulunduğu güç problemin çözümünde çok değerli bir araç olarak görünmektedir. Mimarlar antik çağlardan bu yana bu araca başvurduklarında belleklerde iz bırakan, güçlü bir kimliğe sahip mimari eserleri yaratmayı başarmışlardır. Geçmişteki örnekler yanında, günümüzün önde gelen pek çok mimarının da giderek artan oranda tasarım süreçlerinde metaforlara başvurma veya aynı anlamdaki “homospatial” düşünce yoluyla, özellikle proje konusu veya yeri ile ilgili bir veya daha fazla imgeyi zihinlerinde örtüştürüp, imgelemlerini tetikleyerek güçlü kimliği olan yeni imgelere ulaştıkları görülmektedir. Bu makalede incelenen Gotik Mimarinin konstrüktif başarısı ve ayırt edici kimliği onun doğayı metafor olarak kullanarak strüktürel sistemi doğal kuvvet akışına göre senkronize etmesine ve bu anlamda da doğal süreçleri metafor olarak kullanmasına borçlu görünmektedir Joseph Paxton tarafından 1851 yılında tasarlanan Crystal Palace’ın da mimarlık tarindeki ayırt edici etkin kimliği metaforlara dayanan bir tasarlama anlayışının sonucudur. Nilüfer çiçeği yapraklarının sap kısmından yayılan ışınsal damarların yaprağın kenarındaki kemer şeklindeki ana damarı destekleyerek güçlü bir strüktürel sistem oluşturması Paxton’da hafif, ancak güçlü bir çatı strüktürünün tasarlanabileceği düşüncesini uyandırmıştı. Eiffel Kulesi’nin de etkin kimliği onun metaforik genlerinden gelir. 1850’ler başında anatomist Herman von Meyer insan gövdesinin yüklerini iki bacağa aktarma konusunda önemli bir işlevi olan “femur” olarak adlandırılan uyluk kemiği başının iç strüktürünü inceleyerek onun içindeki kafes gibi bir örüntünün varlığını keşfetti. Eyfel Kulesinin strüktür tasarımında görev alan Carl Cullman daha sonra bu örüntüyü Eiffel Kulesi’nin tasarımına da uyarlayarak “femur”daki gibi eğrisel örüntüdeki kafes sistemi Eyfel’de de üst kısımdan gelen yüklerin zemine iletilmesini sağlayacaktır. Bu makale kapsamında Wright’ın doğayı metafor olarak kullanması ve bazen de Üniteryen Topluluğu Toplantı Merkezi’nin tasarımında olduğu gibi teolojik kökenli metaforlara baş vurması, Bruno Taut’un Cam Pavyonu, Mendelson’un Einstein Kulesi, Tatlin’in Üçüncü Enternasyonel Anıtı, Buckminister Fuller’in Jeodozik Kubbesi, Le Corbusier’in Villa Savoy’u ve Ronchamp Şapeli, Turgut Cansever ve Ertur Yener’in Türk Tarih Kurumu, Correa’nın Jawahar Kala Kendra Sanat Merkezi, Holl’ün Stretto Evi, Tschumi’nin Parc de Villette’i ve Libeskind’in Yahudi Müzesi gibi günümüze daha yakın farklı örnekler üzerinde de durulmuştur. Tüm bu örnekler mimari metaforlar aracılığı ile tasarım süreçlerinde güçlü bir mimari kimliğe ulaşılabileceğinin kanıtları olarak görünmektedirler. Bu makalede işaret edilenlerin yanında mimari tasarım süreçlerinde metaforlara başvurma ile etkili bir mimari kimlik arasında kuvvetli bir korelâsyonun varlığına işaret eden daha pek çok örnek sıralanabilir. Böyle bir yaklaşımla mimarlar, çok katmanlı, sofistike ve güçlü anlamsallıkları yaratma imkanını bulabilmektedir. Burada önemli olan nokta, bu güçlü anlamın tamamiyle yeni bir anlam olmayışı, esasen mevcut bir veya daha fazla anlamın “homospatial thinking” yoluyla metamorfoza uğratılmasıdır. Bu bir anlamda mevcut anlam veya imajların reenkarne olarak yeni bir kimlikle genç bir bedende vücut bulması halidir. Dolayısıyla, bu şekilde ortaya konan mimari çevreler, toplumların bir yandan yenileşme, öte yandan da mevcut kültürel kimliğine yabancılaşmama gibi birbiriyle çelişkili görünen iki ihtiyacını aynı anda karşılama kapasitesindedir. Günümüzde toplumsal kimliğin oluşturulması ve geliştirilmesinde mimari giderek daha önemli bir araç haline gelmektedir. Çünkü toplumlar globalleşmenin kontrol dışı gücünün yol açtığı sıkıntı veren tek düzelik yerine kendi gerçeklik ve kimliklerini yansıtacak, mevcut maddi ve maddi olmayan kültüre yabancı olmayan bir mimari çevreyi giderek daha fazla talep etmektedir. Bu makalede incelenen örneklerde görüldüğü gibi, metaforları esas alan bir tasarlama yaklaşımı, hem insanları alışık oldukları anlam ve değerlerden, paylaşılan kodlardan tamamıyla koparmadan, hem de yenileşme ihtiyacını göz ardı etmeden, mevcut kimliğin zamanın ruhuna uygun bir reenkarnizasyonunu gerçekleştirebilmekte, yepyeni ve güçlü anlamlara ulaşılması olanağını mimarlara vermektedir. The role of metaphors in the formation of architectural identity